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Перевод Слова Даниила Заточника
antnis
Мне нужно было для курса Истории России, который читаю иностранным студентам, дать на ознакомление Даниила Заточника. Увы, перевода не нашлось - пришлось самому переводить.

Word of Daniel the Immured,

written by him to his prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich


Let us blow with trumpets, forged in gold, let us do it with whole of power of our mind and let play the silver organs of pride with our wisdom. Wake up my glory, be evident while Psaltery and gusli (harp) sound. I will get up early and will tell you. I will discover the riddles of mine in my parables and I announce about my glory among people. Since the heart of smart one becomes stronger in the body because of its beauty and wisdom.
My tongue was like stylus of a cursive scribe, and my lips were amiable as a swiftness of river. I tried to write about chains around my heart in order to break them with exasperation like ancestors dashed the children against the stones .
But I'm afraid, my lord, of your conviction.
Because I am like the fig tree damned : I have no fruit of repentance, for I have the heart - as a face with no eyes, and my mind is like a night raven, waking on the peaks. And life of mine has ended with a shame, like of the Canaanite kings; the poverty took me up as the Red Sea had taken Pharaoh .
All that I have written is to escape from the poverty I faced with, like a slave Hagar from Sarah , her mistress.
But I saw, my lord, your kindness to me and I resorted to your ever-present love. It is said in the Scripture: if you give to everyone who asks you , if you keep the door open for the one who knocks you will not be reject from the heaven. It is written: Cast your cares on the Lord and he will sustain you .
I am, my Prince, my Lord, like the scraggy grass, which grows in front of the wall, that hides the grass from either the sun or rain, so I am offended by everyone, because I am not guarded with the fear, caused with the terror of you, I am not protected as in a stronghold.
I ask you please do not look at me, my lord, like a wolf at a lamb, but please look at me as a mother at her child. Please, look at the birds in heaven - they do not plow, they do not sow, but put they trust in God, so we, my lord, look for your kindness.
Because one has Bogoliubovo , and I have only troubles, one has Beloozero , and I have just black tar, one has the Lake Lacha, and I have been only crying there, one has New Town (Novgorod), but my home has gone into pieces – thus my happiness has not come.
My friends and my relatives abandoned me because I didn’t put viands before them. Many of them are my table companion and they reach out their hands for the same saltcellar as me. But they have turned into enemies because of my misfortune and they even help to trip up me. They cry with me in private, but they inly laugh at me. That is why it is better no to trust in friends and hope on brothers.
Prince Rostislav didn’t lie to me, when he said: «I would rather die than I take Kursk principality ", and men say the same: «It is better to die than to live long in poverty." As Solomon said, «Give me, my Lord, neither wealth nor poverty. If I become rich, I’ll become conceited, if I am poor – I will intend to steal or rob" as wives are going to lead a dissolute life.
That's why I apply to you, obsessed with poverty, please mercy on me, the great czar Vladimir’s descendant. Don’t let me weep as Adam wept over Eden. Please send a cloud to the ground of my misery.
My Lord, a rich man is famous everywhere. He has friends even in strange lands, and a poor one is infamous even at home and he loafs hated by everyone. A rich man speaks - everyone shuts up and poor one begins his speech - all cry out to him. Whose clothes are rich, they are venerated.
My Prince, my Lord! Save me from this poverty, as you save the gazelle from the networks, as a bird from the trap, as the duckling from the claws of a hawk, as a sheep from the mouth of the lion.
I am, my Prince, as a tree by the road: many people chop its branches and thrown them into the fire. So am I offended by all, because I am not guarded with the fear of your thunderstorms.
As tin becomes worse when it is often melted, so does a man when he lives in poverty too long.
No one can eat salt in handfuls, no one can be reasonable in bad times. Every man is clever and crafty about the suffering of others; but he can’t say a word about his own. Gold is melted by fire, and a man - by misfortunes. Wheat when it is fine ground turns into good bread and a man finds a mature mind in adversity. A moth, my Prince, destroys clothes, and sorrow destroys human, human sorrow dries his bones.
If anyone helps a person in grief, it looks like one grants him with icy water in a hot day.
Bird rejoices at spring, and baby rejoices at mother. Spring beautifies the land with flowers, and you enliven people with your grace. The same is for orphans and widows, offended by nobles.
My Prince, My lord! Show me your face, because you have such sweet voice and your fine appearance, your mouth sheds honey, and your gifts are like fruits of paradise.
When you drink a sweet drink, please do remember me, who is drinking warm water in a place sheltered from the wind. When you lie on the bed covered with soft sable blankets, please do remember me, who is lying under a handkerchief, I am frozen with cold weather and rain drops, which pierced me in heart.
My Prince, my Lord! Let your hand never give miserly contribution for the poor: because it is impossible to exhaust sea with a bowl, as it is impossible to exhaust your home with our appeals. My Lord don’t keep gold and silver, but keep closer people and give them you silver and gold like seine does not keep water but fishes.
Canvas shows its beauty with embroidered colored silks; the same is to you, my Prince, your honor and glory are presented in all countries with a great number of your servants. Once king Ezekiel boasted to the ambassadors of the Babylonian king and showed them a lot of golden and silver; but they said: “Our king is richer than you not with a lot of gold, but with a lot of warriors: because warriors can get gold, but gold can’t get warriors” . As prince Svyatoslav, the son of Olga, said when he reached Tsargrad (Constantinople) with his armed force: “Brethren! Whatever we will be killed by the city or the city will be captured by us?” How God wishes, so it will be: one can turn out hundred people, and hundred can turn out thousands of people. That one who trusts on God won’t ever waver as the Zion mounting.
It’s nice to pasture horses, when you are located on a hill, so it’s nice to fight in army of a good prince. Regiments often are perished because of disorder. I saw a huge beast, but without a head. So many regiments are there without a good prince. Gusli is tuned up with fingers, and the body is supported with tendons; oak is strong, when it has a lot of root, and our city becomes stronger because of your control.
Generous prince is like a father for many servants, many of them has left their father and mother and come to him. If one serves to a good lord, he gets freedom, but if one serves to an evil lord, he gets in greater servitude. A generous prince is like a river flowing without banks through the oak-grove, water them; it waters not only humans but also animals, and avaricious prince is like a river with banks in stone: you can get drunk neither yourself, nor your horse. A generous boyar is like a well with fresh water on the road: it waters passers, and avaricious one is like a well with salt water.
It is better no to have a yard near the Tsar’s one and it is better not to hold a village near the Tsar’s one, because tiun is like a fire set on aspen branch, and prince’s ryadoviches are like sparks. If you succeed in keeping out the fire, you cannot beware of sparks burning your clothes.
My lord! Do not estimate me according the appearance, but pay attention to my inside. Though I am poor dressed-up and pathetic, my Lord, but my mind is impressive; young am I, but I have adult thoughts. My thought would soar like an eagle in the air.
If you put a ceramic vessel under my tongue, then you get words from my mouth, which are sweeter than honey. As David said, «sweet are your words to my taste, they are sweeter than honey to my mouth." And Solomon said: "The good words fill soul with sweetness; sorrow covers the heart of madman". If you send a wise man, you may not explain in detail, and if you send foolish one, don’t be lazy to follow him. Sage seeks for good, and stupid seeks for feast. It is better to listen to the dispute between smart people than listen to advice from stupid. Instruct the sage, and he becomes wiser.
Do not sow either grain on a boundary path or wisdom in hearts of fools. There is no need to sow fools, reap them and keep in granary, because they give birth to themselves. To teach fools is to fill old bottles. Neither dogs nor pigs need gold, silver, and fools don’t need wise speeches, it is hard to make dead man laugh and to teach fools. If a tomtit devours eagle, if a stone gets floating, and a pig gets baying squirrel, then stupid will be smarter by learning.
Can you really say to me: you told me this because of the stupidity? Have not you seen heave of canvas and stars of splinters, and stupid telling rubbish. Can you really say to me: you lie like a dog?
However princes and boyars do like a good dog. Can you really say to me: you lie like a thief? If I could steal I wouldn’t complain to you. A virgin spoils her beauty with adultery, and a man spoils his virtue with theft.
My lord! It is not the sea destroys ships, but the wind does; it is not the flame makes iron red-hot, but the forge bellows do; so it is not a prince who makes a mistake, but advisers mislead him. With a good adviser the prince can get highest rank, but with stupid one loses he even that he has.
Folk proverbs say: There is no goat among cattle, there is no hedgehog among animals, there is no crawfish among fishes, there is no bat among birds, there is no man among men, if he is dominated by wife, there is no wife among wives, if she commits adultery, there is no job among jobs for women to carry tribute to the scheduled appointment.
It is amazing when one takes monster to wife for profit.
I saw ugly woman, staring at the mirror and rouging, and I said to her: "Do not look in the mirror - you will see the face of your disgrace, which will piss you off ".
Can you really tell me: "Become son-in-law for a rich father-in-law to get a great honor; drink and eat at his home?" It would be better to me to invite a brown ox to my house than to take the wicked wife, because the ox does not say or scheme, but the wicked wife, when you beat her, becomes furious, and when you are gentle with her – she fancies herself, during the wealth times she becomes proud, and in the poverty she says spiteful things about others.
What is an angry wife? She is a roguish peddler, a devilish scoffer. What is an angry wife? He is a cause for a human distemper, for a mind-dazzling, for any malice, she is a taxer for the devil, a sin defender, an obstacle for salvation.
Brethren, here is a wicked wife to recognize her. She says her husband: “My lord, and you are the light of my eyes, how can I dare to give a glance look at you: when you get talking to me, then I look at you, and I faint, and all the members of my body get weaker and then I fall to the ground”.
Wives, look the words of the Apostle Paul! “A cross is a head of the Church, and a husband –is a head of his wife. Wives, go the church and pray to God and the Holy Mother of God! And what you want to learn, you can learn at home from you husbands. And you, husbands, keep your wives in order, because it is not easy to find a good wife.
A good wife is like a crown for her husband, and she is carefree, but a wicked wife is a great distress and a cause for home destruction. The beetle bores wood, and wicked wife devastates her husband's home. It is better to sail with leaky boat than to reveal a secret to a wicked wife: you will wet clothes in the leaky boat, and the wicked wife will destroy all her husband’s life. It is better to beat a rock, than to teach a wicked wife; you can melt down iron, but you never teach the wicked wife.
It is because the wicked wife does not listen to teaching, does not obey the priest, she is not afraid of God, she does not shame of people, but she does reproach and condemn everyone.
What is angrier than lion among four-footed animals and what is more mortal than snake among those that creep? There is nothing mortal than wife’s anger on the earth. At first our great forefather Adam was driven out of Eden because of his wife, because of his wife Lovely Joseph was imprisoned in a dungeon, because of his wife prophet Daniel was thrown down into a ditch, where lions licked his feet. Oh, wicked sharp devil’s weapon and arrow flying with poison!
One man lost wife, after he death he sold children. And the people said to him: "Why do you sell your children?" He replied: "If they were born in the mother, then, as they grow up, they sell me in turn".
But I return back to the previous. My Prince, I did not either go beyond the sea, or learn from the philosophers, but I was like a bee, moving around different flowers, collecting honey in the honeycomb, so I collected sweetness of the words and sense from many books and finally did it like having filled a bottle with sea water.
I say something else. Do not ban a fool to fools, so you won’t become like them. I will not talk much with him. Keep me out of being like a wineskin full of holes, leaking wealth to the hands of the paupers, keep me out of being like a millstone, because it saturates too many people, but it can’t saturate itself. Keep me out of people’s hate because of my long-winded conversations, like a bird rapidly twitters songs till it is hated. It is said in folk proverbs: a long speech is not good, good is a long canvas.
My God! Give our Prince Samson’s strength, Alexander’s courage, Joseph’s intelligence, Solomon’s wisdom, David's ingenuity, and, My Lord, multiply the number of people under his heel! Thanks the God! And let it be now and throughout all eternity!

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